The dissected nature of the Blue Mountains and the changes in the altitude and aspect are responsible for the development of the variety of the specialist niches in the environment. Plants and animals cannot survive in isolation and the complexity of the interrelating species is only just becoming to be understood. Humans depend on the huge array of genetically diverse species to foster our coexistence.
Without genetic variety and consequent adaptation, humanity may well disappear from the planet. Within the blue Mountains are major vegetation groups ranging from complex heath lands, tall open forests, warm temperate rainforest, and extremely important hanging swamps.
Biodiversity programs and bush regeneration works are being undertaken in the Blue Mountains by National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Blue Mountains City Council in an attempt to try help turn back the effects of urbanisation on the fragile environment and maintain the diversity of both plants and animals in the region.